Assessment of the CO2 Storage Potential in Europe (CO2StoP)
CO2StoP is the acronym for the “CO2Storage Potential in Europe.” project. The CO2StoP project, which started in January 2012 and ended in December 2013, was funded by the European Commission (Project N°: ENER/C1/154-2011-SI2.611598). The project covered data from 27 countries. The results of the study are provided as a database of CO2storage locations throughout Europe, a Data Analysis/Interrogation Tool and GIS, and a tool to compute storage capacities and injection rates (StoreFit). The database is now housed by the Joint Research Centre -European Commission, Petten, the Netherlands.
European CO2 storage database
- The database and the visualization tool produced by the Project can be downloaded here. Access requires the use of the commercial software: Microsoft Access, Microsoft Word and ESRI ArcGIS. More information on the installation and the functions of the tool can be found in the user guide that can be found in the package.
The first joint European research on assessment of CO2 storage potential was performed within the project ‘The underground disposal of carbon dioxide’ , funded by 3rd EU Framework Programme – JOULE 2 action in 1993-1995. The first European numbers for possible geological storage in the order of magnitude 800 billion tonnes of CO2, mainly far offshore in the North Sea, were reported (Holloway et al., 1996 ). These estimates of geological capacities were, as it was stated, ‘broad-brush’ numbers, but nevertheless encouraging and thus leading to further work. The JOULE 2 study mentioned above combined with the commencement of Sleipner project was the inspiration for the GESTCO study (full title ‘European potential for geological storage of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion’ ) that was carried out in 2000-2003. GESTCO was a 3-year EU-FP5 project covering 8 countries (Norway, Denmark, UK, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, France and Greece). Results were published in the project summary Report (Christensen et al, 2003 ). Within the large CASTOR project (‘CO2 from Capture to Storage’ , EU-FP6, 2004-2008) a small part (WP1.2) enabled to initiate collaborative activities in the area of CO2 storage capacity assessment between the GESTCO countries and some of the – at that time - new EU Member States and Candidate Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. First CO2 storage potential data from the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia and Bulgaria were collected and integrated in a Geographic Information System. Data were collected on possible geological storage locations, such as aquifers, oil and gas fields and coal seams, as well as local CO2 emission point sources. Based on the data and assumptions a first estimate of geological storage capacity was calculated proving that generally for 20 years all the CO2 emissions from point sources of the studied region could be stored in geological sites (Scholtz et al., 2006 ). In 2006-2008, the above-mentioned activities were topped by EU GeoCapacity (full title ‘Assessing European capacity for geological storage of carbon dioxide’ ), an EU-FP6 project that has been the most comprehensive activity on mapping pan-European CO2 storage potential so far. EU GeoCapacity covered 25 countries. Comprehensive country reports were produced, containing assessment of geological structures suitable for CO2 geological storage, CO2 point emission sources and infrastructure (pipeline) data. Storage potential was evaluated on the basis of a unified methodology; the level of detail, however, differed country by country, depending on the amount and quality of available data. Archive, re-evaluated, as well as newly derived data were used. The main result is a GIS-based, pan-European database of CO2 storage potential. The database includes both public and confidential data; therefore it could not be freely used in public domain. Project reports, publications and presentations are still available on project website . In 2012-2013, the European Commission initiated a Specific Targeted Research Project titled CO2StoP (‘CO2 Storage Potential in Europe’ ) to establish a database of publicly available data on CO2 storage potential in Europe. Due to the low budget, only existing data could be used. 27 European countries were covered. In most cases, EU GeoCapacity data were used, rid of their confidential part. Only a few countries provided updates, based on the developments funded on national level. CO2StoP used an improved methodology for storage potential assessment, and a pan-European database has been produced. The database is now housed by the EC Joint Research Centre in Petten, the Netherlands, and has not been made public yet. Project results include the database, GIS (ESRI’s ArcGIS 10) and a calculation engine capable of providing probabilistic estimates of CO2 storage capacity. A Data Analysis/Interrogation Tool is also available, able to perform calculations of storage capacity, injection rates and their stochastic analyses. The CO2StoP database represents the most up-to-date pan-European dataset; its significant part, however, is now 10 and more years old and does not reflect the recent changes and updates performed on national and regional levels. A good example of new developments is the Nordic CO2 Storage Atlas was produced by NORDICCS – the Nordic CCS Competence Centre in 2011-2015; it covers Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Iceland. It is available online . Significant developments on national level have recently been achieved in the Netherlands, Norway, the UK, …………….. (see Annex I). Annex I provides an overview of current status of CO2 storage potential assessment in individual European countries. It is evident that the level of knowledge, quality of datasets and form of presentation differ country by country, from top-level national atlases and databases (Norway, UK…) to basic or even completely lacking assessments in some countries, especially in Central and Eastern Europe.
The information about the geological formations and individual units of assessment come from the “CO2 Storage Potential in Europe (CO2StoP)” project. Reuse of this information is authorised, provided the source is acknowledged. The reuse policy of the European Commission is implemented by the Commission Decision of 12 December 2011 on the reuse of Commission documents, available here. The output from the CO2StoP project does not reflect the official opinion of the European Commission. Responsibility for the information and views expressed in the CO2StoP database and the information about CO2 storage capacities lies entirely with their respective author(s) and data providers.